Mary Cassatt : An American Impressionist in Paris – Exhibition at the Musée Jacquemart-André

Mary Cassatt, who has been described as one of ‘Les Trois Grandes Dames” of impressionism, has the distinction of being the only American to exhibit with the Impressionists in Paris.  She was born in Pennsylvania in 1844 to a well off family but it was during an extended trip to Europe, including Paris, while still a child that she the-mandolin-player.jpg!Largediscovered art. Having decided to become a professional artist, she attended Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts but disappointed with the attitude and training here, she moved to Paris in 1866 to continue her studies, despite opposition from her parents As woman were still banned from attending the prestigious École des Beaux Arts, she studied privately with some of the leading artists of the day. Her first success with the Paris Salon was in 1868 when, A Mandoline Player, a painting executed in an academic style and on loan to the exhibition from a Private Collection, was accepted for exhibition by the jury.  However, she eventually became disilliusioned with the Salon and the academic art they preferred and in 1875, when she first saw the work of Edgar Degas, she is quoted as saying ‘ It  changed my life. I saw art then as I wanted to see it”. Mary_Cassatt_-_Little_Girl_in_a_Blue_Armchair_-_NGA_1983.1.18So in 1877 when she was invited by Degas to exhibit at the Impressionist exhibition, she jumped at the chance. One of her masterpieces from this period is Little Girl in a Blue Armchair, 1878, National Gallery of Art Washington, a compelling piece of work which stood out in the first room of the exhibition. The blue of the four easy chairs which take up a large portion of the canvas is striking and captivating. The little girl is shown flopped on one of the chairs while a little dog sleeps on the one next to her, all depicting a cosy domestic interior. It has now come to light, following infrared photography, that Degas contributed to the painting.

 

Edgar_Degas_-_Mary_Cassatt_-_Google_Art_ProjectDegas and Cassatt developed a close friendship and they could often be seen at the Louvre studying art together. They had a lot in common, both being from affluent backgrounds, well educated, both interested in figurative painting and both remaining unmarried.  They had studios near each other and they advised and encouraged each other.  Degas painted Cassatt’s portrait (left)  in 1877, now in the National Gallery, Washington, and Mary_Stevenson_Cassatt_-_Mary_Cassatt_Self-Portrait_-_Google_Art_Projectalthough she hung it in her studio she found the painting ‘repugnant’. Degas paints her leaning over looking at the cards she holds in her hands and this painting contrasts sharply with the pose she adopts for her own self portrait, (which were rare),  which she painted around the same time and in which she appears to wear the same outfit. In her self portrait (right) from the National Portrait Gallery, Washington, which is sketchily executed, she sits upright and presents herself as a professional artist and elegantly dressed woman.
the-cup-of-tea-1879.jpg!HalfHDMary Cassatt came from a francophile family, her father being descended from a French Huguenot family who settled in America in 1642  and her mother spoke fluent French. So it was no surprise then that, three years after Mary settled in Paris, her parents together with her sister Lydia moved to join her in 1877. Mary was very close to her sister Lydia and she became the subject of many of her paintings.  The Cup of Tea, c 1880/1881, on loan from the Metropolitan Museum, New York, depicts Lydia dressed in fashionable clothes celebrating both sisters love of fashion. In the painting, Lydia wears a stunning pink dress whose magnificent white ruff matches the cuffs of her dress and long gloves.  Here Lydia is taking part in the very fashionable social ritual of tea drinking and she is depicted elegantly holding a cup. Unfortunately, Lydia suffered from a kidney disease and died prematurely in 1882 aged 45 leaving Mary deeply affected.

Mary_Cassatt_-_Portrait_of_Alexander_J._Cassatt_and_His_Son,_Robert_Kelso_Cassatt_-_PMA_W1959-1-1

The exhibit also displays a portrait, from the Philadelphia Museum of Art, of her older brother, Alexander J. Cassat with his son Robert, which was executed whilst on a trip to Paris in 1884. Cassat shows the sitters with serious expressions and dressed in black but she softens the view by depicting her nephew sitting casually on the arm of his fathers chair with his arm around his neck. Alexander was a very successful business man becoming president of the Pennsylvania Railroad and on his death was one of the richest man in America. He was proud of his sisters success and due to her influence he became a collector of impressionist work.

 

4e23d3319625c2c2de3a9e78a61c7d18

By 1894 Cassatt had bought Chateau de Beaufresne, a cottage about 50 miles north west of Paris where she was visited by many of her artist friends and where she would remain until her death in 1926. There was a small pond on the grounds and it is probably this pond that features in the painting Summertime, 1894, Terra Foundation for the Arts, Chicagowhich shows a woman and young girl on a boat in the lake. Equal importance is given both to the figures and the landscape, unusual for Cassat who liked to concentrate on her figures. Cassatt uses red, orange, blue and green brushstrokes to create a rippling effect on the water and the result is stunning. The two figures on the boat gaze at the duck passing by and the whole scene evokes the image of a leisurely peaceful summer’s day.

 

mother-holding-a-child-in-her-arms

Mary Cassatt’s became famous for her figure paintings, particularly of woman in domestic scenes and especially mothers with their children. The last room of the exhibition displays several works with this signature theme of ‘Mother and Child’ which Cassatt is so identified with and which can be seen as modern versions of the Virgin Mary and Child. Seated Woman with a Child in Her Arms, c 1890, Bilbao Museum of Fine Arts, is extremely tender in its depiction of a boy in his mothers arms as he rests his head on his arm which in turn rests on her shoulder. The mother, who is seated at a table with a pitcher and washbasin, has her back is to us and she seems preoccupied with some task. The tenderness of the scene is accentuated by the beautiful tones of pink and blue used by Cassatt.

Mary-Cassatt-Mother-and-Child-also-known-as-The-Oval-Mirror-

This last room also displays Mother and Child (The Oval Mirror),c 1899, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, which was purchased by the Havemeyers, and who referred to it as ‘The Florentine Madonna”. The reference to the Virgin Mary and Child is clear from the the contrapposto stance of the young boy and in the oval mirror behind him which acts as a halo.

The exhibition is a great tribute to Mary Cassatt and as well as the works referred to above, it also highlights her interest in the creative process and the experimental nature of her work. It shows her as a modern independent woman who advocated equal rights for women and she was a revelation to me.

 

 

 

Musée Jacquemart-André

From my first visit to the Musée Jacquemart-André, I was captivated by this beautiful mansion and the story of its owners, Nélie Jacquemart and Edouard André. The museum’s audioguide recounts details from an article in the magazine L’Illustration of it’s inaugural ball in 1876 and it describes the scene as a ‘dazzling fairytale ball’ which was attended by ‘all the celebrities of fashion and elegance’ with ‘the walls of the reception rooms smothered under a balmy canopy of violets and lilies’ and ‘the double ballroom ablaze with one thousand candles’.

img_1684
Musée Jacquemart- André
But who were this couple behind the mansion? Edouard André, born in 1833, was the heir to a huge banking fortune and it was he who commissioned the building of the mansion whilst still a batchelor so that he could house his growing art collection. Nélie Jacquemart, on the other hand, had almost ‘a rag to riches story’ having been born into a modest family but whose talent elevated her to become a successful society portraitist. The couple first met when Edouard commissioned Nélie to paint his portrait but it would be another 10 years before they would marry in 1881. Having no children, they spent the next 13 years of married life, until Edouard’s death, devoting their time and energy to their shared taste in art and to their growing collection. They spent six months of the year travelling extensively mainly in Europe and particularly in Italy searching out works of art to add to their collection. On Edouard’s death, Nélie continued to travel and add to the collection and on her death, the property and its collection were bequeath to the state. It opened as a museum in 1913.

img_1708
Edouard André painted by his wife Nélie Jacquemart and Nélie  Jacquemart, self portrait
The collection which includes works by Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Botticelli, Tiepolo, just to mention a few, is spread out over the mansion but the museum is worth a visit just to see the beautiful rooms themselves. On entering, the visitor is greeted by three magnificent formal reception rooms which were used to  host balls and musical eveings.

These three rooms above, comprising the Picture Gallery, the Grand Salon and the Music room, could be transformed into one single space when the couple held their lavish parties and could hold upto 1000 guests. Beyond these rooms is the Winter Garden, a more refreshing space under a glass celing with a monumental staircase made of marble leading up to the Italian Museum, whose Italian collection is considered to be the finest in France after the Louvre. Here you will find works by many of the great Italian masters including the one below left, ‘The Virgin and Child’ by Perugino (1446-1523).

IMG_2303

Back downstairs are the informal apartments consisting of a series of smaller more intimate rooms including the library, the smoking room and the study.IMG_2302 These rooms were used by the couple for their personal and business affairs and today are still filled with the works of art amassed by the couple including the likes of the portrait of Countess Skavronskia by Elizabeth Vigée Le Brun (1775-1842), the favourite artist of Queen Marie-Antoinette (opposite right). Finally, there are the private apartments consisting of Néliés bedroom, Edouard’s bedroom and an antechamber between the two.

Finally, a trip to the museum wouldn’t be complete without a visit to it’s amazing café which used to be the dining room in the couple’s home. You can actually visit the café without visiting the museum and it will give you a flavour of what is on offer in this unique museum.

img_1710
Café at the Musée Jacquemart-André
Just look up and admire the fresco by Tiepolo, 1696-1770, which the couple brought from Villa Contarini near Venice and had installed in their home.